Category SfP Bulletin Oct 7 1982
President – Eric Fawcett (416) 978-5217
Secretary – Brydon Gombay (416) 978-2971
Treasurer – Derek Manchester (416) 978-2978
Education Director – Terry Gardner (416) 978-6926
Research Director – Derek Paul (416) 978-2971
Bulletin Editor – Edward Barbeau (416) 978-8601
Room A102, University College
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontrio M5S 1A1
Editor’s note: This Bulletin is open to notices, correspondence and brief reviews of important articles and books. Local chapters are encouraged to send in reports of their activities for publication.
S4P thanks Doreen Morton for typing this Bulletin.
A Report by Eric Fawcett, President, S4P: I attended the 1982 World Conference against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs, which is organized annually by the two major organisations for peace and disarmament, GENSUIKIN and GENSUIKYO. I am writing these notes on the peace movement in Japan since:
a) the movement has a long history, a large membership and is an important feature of Japanese life — especially the keen awareness of the plight of the HIBAKUSHA, the victims of the atom bombs (including in a wider interpretation those used in future wars), and also a strong vein of pacifism resulting from the excesses of imperialistic militarism of the 30’s and 40’s and its disastrous outcome in WWII.
b) I was almost completely ignorant about the Japanese peace movement be-fore this visit, like most Canadians, largely because of the formidable language barrier but also because our media do such a poor job of reporting even our own Canadian peace activities. I believe it is Important for us to know about the Japanese peace movement, since we can learn a great deal from the nation which has suffered the only exposure thus far to nuclear weapons; since Japan, with its powerful economy, is still basically defensive in military posture (less than 1% GNP mili:tary budget) but is now under strong pressure from the U.S.A. to change towards developing offensive capability; and since in general the peace movement needs to develop international communication.
GENSUIKIN is an anti-nuclear mass movement (its name is an abbreviation for Gensuibaku Kinshi Nihon Kokumin Kaigi = Japan Congress against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs) with branches in all 46 prefectures. It is closely associated with and funded by the Japan Socialist Party and SOHYO (the General Council of
Trade Unions of Japan). Gensuikin is firmly opposed also to civil nuclear power.
GENSUIKYO is also a large mass movement, with 200,000 members, closely associated with the Japan Communist Party. The latter party is numerically about as strong as the NDP in Canada in proportion to the total 491 represent-atives in the Diet, having about 50 representatives with about 150 for the Socialists, and 250 for the Liberal-Democrats (the ruling party) and 50 in smaller parties and independent.
Japan Scientists Association (JSA) has about 10,000 members and is affili-ated with the World Federation of Scientific Workers.
Japan Peace Research Group (JPRG) was formed in the middle 60’s about the same time as JSA and has about 50 members, mostly in the social and human sciences. JPRG publishes a journal, Peace Research in Japan.
This list gives by no means a comprehensive description of the peace movement in Japan. It includes none of the HIBAKUSHA groups — after all there are 370,000 living hibakusha in Japan today, including also Koreans and
Chinese who had been brought to Hiroshima and Nagasaki for forced labour. Nor does the list include any of the religious organisations, most of which have a strongly pacifist flavour.
I would strongly encourage any Canadian to participate if possible in the annual World Conference against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs. The last conference was very well run, with simultaneous translation into English at all the sessions in Tokyo, then Hiroshima and finally Nagasaki (I was unable to go on to there). The other foreign participants were extremely interesting and from diverse back-grounds. I benefited greatly from having Setsuko Thurlow introduce me to many of the leading Japanese participants — I believe she intends to participate in next year’s conference. I am unable to express the emotional impact of tak-ing part with 30,000 Japanese on the eve of Hiroshima day in a “die-in” — a simulated drop of an atomic bomb; of the simple ceremony culminating at 8:15 a.m. on August 6, the moment at which 100,000 people died; of meeting the hibakusha; and finally of the courage and sheer joy of 6000 young and old Japanese, at an indoor rally and concert on the last day in Hiroshima, express-ing their determination to see that there would be: “Nomor Hiroshima; Nomor Nagasaki; Nomor Hibakushal” (EF)
82.53. University College Lectures In Peace Studies
This new series of six public lectures is offered by University College at the University of Toronto, and cosponsored by Science for Peace, with the aim of providing the university’s community a deeper understanding of the pos-sible contributions of scholarship to the advancement of peace.
The lectures will be held in West Hall, University College, at 8:00 p.m., and will be followed by a discussion period. One lecture has already occurred, but you are cordially welcome to attend the rest. The complete programme follows:
- 30 September: Prof. George Quester, Chairman, Dept. of Government and Politics, University of Maryland
- 22 October: Prof. Elise Boulding, Chairman, Dept. of Sociology, Dartmouth College, New Hampshire
- 19 November: Dr. William Epstein, Consultant on Disarmament, Canadian Government
- 13 January: Prof. Kosta Tsipis, Dept. of Physics and Program in Science and Technology for International Security, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- 24 February: Prof. Anatol Rapoport, Director, Institute for Advanced Study, Vienna
- 24 March: Prof. Seymour Melman, Department of Industrial Engineering, Columbia University
Further information: Terry Gardner (416) 978-6926 82.54. UCAM RALLY AT UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
At lunch time on Thursday, September 16, over 100 members of the univer-sity attended a rally on the knoll in front of Hart House. It was the occasion of introducing to the campus a new organization, the University of Toronto Dis-armament Campaign (UCAM) and to delve into implications of the nuclear arms race. Student Matthew Clark delivered a restrained but effective address on the risks of the arms race. Professor Mel Watkins of the Economics Department looked at the economic consequences. Professor Metta Spencer, a sociologist, discussed feelings of fear, guilt and apathy consequent to nuclear armaments. Finally, Professor Ursula Franklin (Metallurgy) expressed her concern that democracy is being undermined. (Varsity report, Sept. 17, p. 3)
82.55. Falk – Talk
The speech given by Richard Falk at Convocation Hall, June 4th 1982 was taped, typed, sent to him for editing, and released by him to Science for Peace for distribution as we see fit.
S4P will provide copies of the typescript for $3.00, copies of the tape for $3.00 plus cost of the blank tape. Purchasers are encouraged to buy only one copy and to make further copies themselves. Our price will drop when we have recovered our costs. We hope that this important message will reach many church and school libraries, as well as community groups and interested individuals. (LTG)
At the Board meeting of Science for Peace held July 14 1982 an ordinary member, Dr. Dimitrios G. Oreopoulos introduced a motion in the following letter:
“When I first joined the organization “Science for Peace”, I did it because, as probably did many of you, I believe that I had to do something to stop an atomic war. By joining an organization of scientists, I felt that my voice would be stronger and might be heard by the strong ones who decide our futures.
“Ironically, only a few months after I joined Science for Peace, two local but bloody wars erupted, namely the Falkland Islands war and the Israeli invasion of Lebanon. On a daily basis, my children and I could see young men being drowned or burned to death, and young children who should have been enjoying the sun and their innocent games, being killed or burned or seriously wounded. On television this has become such a common sight that it is difficult to distinguish the scenes of war from the movies depicting violent crime.
“The first war finished and the second is coming to an end with the victorious celebrations of the strong and feelings of extreme humiliation on the weak side. The anger and hatred between the opposing people is greatly increased over that which existed before the war. As far as the “Science for Peace” movement is concerned, we can thank God that we did not have to use science to prevent an atomic war, since one of the two sides in both wars did not have atomic weapons. However, it should require only a little imagination to visualize how the humiliated parties would have reacted if they had atomic weapons in their possession!! This brings forward the question whether we, as scientists and as members of the “Science for Peace” organization should concentrate on preventing atomic war or rather should increase our efforts for peace in general irrespective of the type of weapons used to break the peace.
“I do not think that we can avoid atomic war, if we do not try to improve the understanding between people; if we don’t try to make people feel proud of being citizens of this planet, rather than of their own nations.
“We should make it known that we oppose every type of aggression, every type of war, irrespective of the weapons used. We should make sure that the public opinion operates as a critical and important “weapon” that no political power can ignore.
“I would like to move that even with a delay, we should take a stand on both wars. We oppose the mindless action of the Argentinians, and at the same time we oppose the counterattack by the British. Public pressure could have brought the same results, perhaps a little later, but definitely with less loss of life and less humiliation. We oppose the terrorist actions of the PLO and the shelling and killing of Israeli civilians, but also we oppose the Israeli invasion and the indiscriminate bombing of cities with the consequent suffering of women and young children. Their suffering is our suffering.
“Our goal is to prevent atomic war. The time has come for us to realize that we cannot prevent it unless we oppose all wars. The time has come to make our views known. I think it was Dante who said that the worst place in hell is reserved for those who could have done something but did not.”
There was vigorous discussion of the motion in which ordinary and Board members participated. The arguments indicated two positions which can be broad-ly summarised:
- Science for Peace should restrict itself to technical matters in which scientists have expertise: we lose credibility if we make statements on purely political matters.
- Science for Peace has a primary objective of averting the threat of war waged with weapons of mass destruction; either the Falklands war or the Israeli invasion of Lebanon has the potential to escalate into nuclear war (unlike for example the civil war in El Salvador) and therefore they are a proper concern of Science for Peace.
We should like to know the views of members and we suggest they write directly to:
Dr. Dimitrios G. Oreopoulos, Toronto Western Hospital 399 Bathurst Street Toronto M5T 2S8
Dr. Oreopoulos is a University of Toronto Professor of Medicine and Director of the Peritoneal Dialysis Unit at Toronto Western Hospital.
82.58. Peace Brigades
In 1957, Vinoba Bhave founded Shanti Sena, the Peace Army, to deal with riots in Indian towns and cities. Dressed in distinctive uniforms, these peace “soldiers” would appear at a trouble spot and teams of them would interpose themselves between antagonists, talk with them about grievances and try to encourage a peaceful resolution of conflicts. Once violence was stopped, the members would provide relief and aid in reconstruction. In 1961, a conference in Beirut, Lebanon led to the formation of the World Peace Brigade. Unfor-tunately, this declined, but some WPB veterans sought to revive the concept.
In September 1981, a conference on Grindstone Island resulted in the organiza-tion of Peace Brigades International, which hopes to gain official standing for its work of reconciliation and relief.
Information on active peace organizations:
- Peace Brigades International, Box 199, Cheyney, PA 19319 U.S.A.
- Peaceworkers, 3565 Mt. Diablo Blvd., Lafayette, CA 94549 U.S.A.
- World Peace Army, 15 Rutherford Place, New York, NY 10003 U.S.A. (FOR Fellowship, July/Aug. 1982, pp. 9-10, 24)
82.57. Grant Awarded To Student Pugwash
MRC, SSHRC and NSERC have awarded a $27,000 grant to Canadian Student Pugwash after its first National Conference in June 1981 on “Science in Society: its freedom and regulation” and a consequent book published in April, 1982. A conference on “Science, Knowledge and Power” is planned for June 1983. Infor-mation: CSP, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Suite 805, 151 Slater St., Ottawa, Ontario KIP 5H3 (CAUT Bulletin, Sept. 1982, p. 9).
82.60. Peace Research Laboratory
The Peace Research Laboratory is the oldest continuously operating peace research centre in the world. Founded by Dr. Theodore F. Lentz in 1945, it encourages scientists to use their expertise for the promotion of peace and supports many projects and publications. Its current director is Dr. William Eckhardt, 800 Kingsland Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63130 U.S.A. (314-727-2563).
h2. 82.63. Ottawa Cruise Missile Demonstration: Oct. 30
On Saturday, October 30, 1982 there will be a demonstration in Ottawa to stop the Cruise Missile. Peace Buses will leave Toronto (Sidney Smith Hall, 100 St. George Street) at 6:30 a.m. and return either the same day (cost $18.) or the next day (cost $20.). Tickets: ASSU, SS 1068; GSU, 16 Bancroft Ave.; SCM, Hart House. Information: S. Winterton (UCAM) 924-6571; Toronto October 30 Committee 469-1306.
82.64. Ploughshares Asks For Support Of Minority Report
[See item 82.20. Position Paper No. 2, S4P Bulletin, Vol. 2, May 7, 1982.]
Six MP’s in Ottawa issued a dissenting report to the official one of the Standing Committee on External Affairs and National Defense. Project Ploughshares urges that, despite support of this Minority Report already indicated, further action is needed. “Individuals should contact every MP – starting with their own. Ask them to support the Minority Report. If he/she does, reply with thanks and keep a record of the response. If the reply is inconclusive or negative, reply in turn with questions and information supporting the report. Keep the discussion open”. Correspondents should send a copy of the MP’s statement and other documents to Judy Evaski-McLean, President, ENNUF, 12530 110 Ave., Edmonton, Alberta T5M 215 (Ploughshares Monitor, Newsreport, Sept. 1982, p. 2).
82.66. Vote Yes For Disarmament
[See item 82.16, 82.17, S4P Bulletin, Vol. 2, May 7, 1982]
The question that the Toronto electorate will vote on is “Do you support nuclear disarmament by all nations on a gradual basis with the ultimate goal of a world free from nuclear weapons, and mandate your federal government to negotiate and implement with other governments steps which would lead to the earliest possible achievement of this goal?” A letter from Debbie Trainor, Member of the Finance/Fundraising Committee outlines the steps taken by the Toronto Disarmament Network to solicit a yes vote: a pamphlet, a press kit, special ward events and, possibly, buttons and bumper stickers. However, she is concerned that funds will be short and requests prompt donations to Vote Yes for Disarmament (Toronto), Suite 717, 133 Wilton St., Toronto, Ont. M5A 4A4. Cheques payable to “Yes Vote Campaign, Toronto”.
82.67. Peace Tax Committee
Edith Adamson, coordinator of the Peace Tax Fund Committee, informs S4P that one can subscribe to a newsletter and donate to a legal fund which will finance the support of a test case. Write to the Committee, Victoria Monthly Meeting, Religious Society of Friends (Canada), 1831 Fern Street, Victoria, B.C. V8R 4H4.
Since its foundation 35 years ago the WFSW has warned of the dangers posed to humanity by the qualitative and quantitative development of nuclear weapons and of other weapons of mass destruction. We are acutely aware of the threat of a war in which such weapons would be used and that only the rapid mobilisation of all those who are resolutely opposed to their use can prevent it.
To avoid this danger the most important task is to revive the spirit of detente and of international co-operation which the struggle for peace has been able to create in recent decades. All policies of confrontation should be abandoned: antagonisms between countries and between social systems must not be used to justify increased levels of armaments.
Science and technology, the fruits of human development and ingenuity, are increasingly misused in the development of new weapons systems and new elements of sophistication deliberately designed to destabilise any possible balance of power and to make agreement on measures of control increasingly difficult. It is reckoned that activity related to military ends employs some 40% of the world’s stock of scientists, engineers and technicians. We believe that scientific workers, who are indebted to society both for their training and for the opportunity to exercise their skills, should repay that debt through active and continuous involvement in all movements for peace and disarmament.
The WFSW believes that the growing speed of the qualitative development of weapons systems makes it a matter of urgency for all governments to take the essential steps needed for mutual understanding and negotiation.
The WFSW believes that the problems of the arms race cannot be isolated from those of development. The poverty, the misery,.the desperation of the poorest countries of the world, is itself a major cause of tensions. The determination of some countries and of the transnationals to control and to exploit the latent riches of the Third World, and their claim to unimpeded access to these sources of profit, is another major cause of tension. We believe that the struggle for peace and for disarmament has to be closely linked with the fight against hunger, against deprivation, against exploitation and for the NIEO. If it is isolated, it may win only the support of those sections of the population able to detach themselves from the struggle for existence, even in times of peace.
We emphasize that our final aim is not just the maintenance of peace, but disarmament itself. We remember that .the Second World War, fought until its last days with so-called ‘conventional’ weapons, resulted in 55 million deaths. It is true that the first few hours of a war with nuclear weapons would kill many times more people than in the whole course of the Second World War from 1939-1945. Nevertheless the abandonment of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons would still leave mankind with the ability to create destruction on a scale far greater than anything so far suffered. Only positive steps towards the reduction of arms and armed forces to the level needed for minimum pro-tection will ensure the abandonment of war as an instrument of national policy.
We call on all scientific workers and their organisations, as their special contribution to the struggle for peace, to provide concrete and specific infor-mation from the angle of their various disciplines on:
- the consequences of nuclear war,
- the dangers of the concepts of “winnable” and limited nuclear wars,
- the current level of developments of weapons of mass destruction and the perspectives for their further development,
- the dangers of the militarlsation of science,
- the possibilities for the conversion of the arms industries and their resources to peaceful construction.
We call on scientific workers to support the WFSW in its demands for the banning of the development, production, deployment and use of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction and for a comprehensive programme of general and comprehensive disarmament.
Roskilde, February 1982 Address: 40 Goodge St., London W1P 1FH, UK
From the NAS, 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington, DC 20416 comes the following resolution, dated April 27, 1982:
Nuclear War and Arms Control
- Whereas nuclear war is an unprecedented threat to humanity;
- Whereas a general nuclear war could kill hundreds of millions and destroy civilization as we know it;
- Whereas any use of nuclear weapons, including use in so-called “limited wars,” would very likely escalate to general nuclear war;
- Whereas science offers no prospect of effective defense against nuclear war and mutual destruction;
- Whereas, the proliferation of nuclear weapons to additional countries with unstable governments in areas of high tension would substantially increase the risk of nuclear war;
- Whereas there has been no progress for over two years toward achieving limitations and reductions in strategic arms, either through ratification of SALT II or the resumption of negotiation on strategic nuclear arms;
Be it therefore resolved that the National Academy of Sciences calls on the President and the Congress of the United States, and their counterparts in Soviet Union and other countries which have a similar stake in these vital matters;
- To intensify substantially, without preconditions and with a sense of urgency, efforts to achieve an equitable and verifiable agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union to li it strategic nuclear arms and to reduce significantly the numbers of nuc ar weapons and delivery systems;
- To take all practical actions that could reduce the risk of nuclear war by accident or miscalculation;
- To take all practical measures to inhibit the further proliferation of nuclear weapons to additional countries;
- To continue to observe all existing arms control agreements, including SALT II; and
- To avoid military doctrines that treat nuclear explosives as ordinary weapons of war.
82.49. Peace And Disarmament Reading List
Members of Science for Peace may find this selection useful for their awn use, but it was compiled for distribution to community groups which we expect will be asking us for help in studying peace and disarmament issues as the November election approaches with the disarmament referendum on the ballot in many municipalities.
A very recent publication might be added: “The Arms Race and Arms Control”, a paperback edition of the SIPRI Yearbook 1982, published by Taylor and Francis at about $8 (SIPRI= Stockholm International Peace Research Institute). Chapters of Science for Peace should write to SIPRI, Bergshamra, S-171 73 Solna, Sweden for the SIPRI Brochure.
82.59. For Reference
- “Hope from Hiroshima” by Gene Knudsen-Hoffman; “Peace Brigades” by Mark Shepard; “UNSSDII”; “A gathering of many faiths” (International Religious Convocation for UNSSDII); “Bread and peonies” (Blockade the Bombmakers civil disobedience at the UN in June 1982). Fellowship, July/Aug. 1982.
- “An economist looks at the arms race” (The Innis Memorial Column) by Mel Watkins. This Magazine, Vol. 16, No. 3, July, 1982, pp. 15-19.
- “Swords into Plowshares: The Cruise Missile Conversion Project” by Murray MacAdam. Canadian Forum, Vol. 62, #720, Aug., 1982, pp. 21,25.
- “Disarmament: moral vision and practical politics” by Mike Jendrzejczyk. “Puffing up the pentagon: a union view” by Leslie Nulty. Fellowship, June, 1982.
- “Denial bars disarmament, experts say” (American Psychiatric Association Conference) Globe & Mail, Monday, May 17, 1982, p. C14.
- “Alternative to war” by William Eckhardt. Manchester College Bulletin of the Peace Studies Institute, 1980, 10 (1), pp. 40-44.
- “The chance for Canada to become an arms dropout” by Andrew Brewin. Globe & Mail, August 6, 1982, p. 7.
- “Cracks beginning to show in Soviet armor” Newsday, reprinted in Toronto Star, Sept. 1, 1982.
82.65. Publishing Notices From Ploughshares
The Fate of the Earth, Jonathan Schell: The critics rave about it; the public everywhere is reading it and profoundly moved by it; all that remains is for the nuclear planners to believe it. Jonathan Schell’s The Fate of the Earth, topped New York’s list in hardcover during UNSSODII. Now, Avon Books of Canada has announced the publication of this most important work on the meaning of life and death in the nuclear age in paperback to be released November 1, 1982.
Said Studs Terkel, “There have been books that have changed our lives. This one may save our lives.” Walter Cronkite said, “If it can do for the nuclear sanity movement what Rachel Carsons’ Silent Spring did for the environment movement, there still may be hope to save our civilization.” Project Ploughshares, in cooperation with the publisher, Avon Books, is proud to offer this most famous book of our time, a work of exceptional force that confronts the reality of the potential annihilation of life on Earth by nuclear weapons, at a 25% discount off the already exceptional list price of $2.95 per copy.
When ordering from Project Ploughshares, please make cheques or money-orders payable to the Canadian Council of Churches and send to: Project Plough-shares, Conrad Grebel College, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G6. Orders may also be made directly to the publisher, and must include full payment (less 25% discount) in cheque or money-order ONLY payable to Avon Books of Canada. Send to Avon Books of Canada, Education Department, 2061 McCowan Road, Suite 210, Scarborough, Ontario M1S 3Y6. (Ploughshares Monitor Newsreport, Sept. 1982, p. 7)
The address of Avon Books is Suite 210, 2061 McCowan Road, Scarborough, Ontario M1S 3Y6. Their Education Sales Manager is Peter Austin (416) 293-9404.
82.68. Introducing: The World
Introducing: The World, a world affairs program, is looking for resource people to participate in small group discussions at our Interschool Conference on Friday, November 5, 1982, at The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. The conference is designed to generate interest in global issues among secon-dary school students and teachers. As a resource person, you may expect to help the group identify issues, encourage thoughtful exchanges of views, and provide the perspective of your own experience. No speeches are required; we simply need people who enjoy asking questions of themselves and others. For more information, call Hayley Aplyn or Cheryl Ranson, 923-6641 ext. 408.
82.69. The Fate Of “The Fate Of The Earth”
The Fate of the Earth by Schell belongs to the genre of “political fantasy and millenial daydreaming” in the opinion of Theodore Draper in an extensive review of Schell’s book along with books by Solly Zuckerman and by Bundy, Kennar, McNamara and Smith. This appears in the New York Review, July 15, 1982, pp.35-43. Correspondence anyone?
82.70. “Ideas” On CBC
The radio programme series Ideas (CBC-FM at 8 p.m.) featured in October:
(1) 1982 Massey Lectures: “Indefensible weapon” Robert Jay Lif ton, Yale Univer-sity (Oct. 11-15).
(2) “Nuclear peace”, a 10-part series on War and Peace hosted by Sharon Dunn. Some speakers: Douglas Roche, Richard Falk, E.P. Thompson, Paul Warnke, Inge Thorsson, Christian Bay, Philip Berrigan, Archbishop Hunthausen.
82.71. Nuclear Power & Weapons
On Sunday, October 24, an evening with Amory B. Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins in the Toronto City Hall Chambers will focus on the topic “Nuclear power & nuclea) weapons: breaking the nuclear line. Information: 978-7014.
82.72. Disarmament: The Emerging Global Mandate
From Friday noon, October 22 to Sunday noon, October 24, a conference Disarmament: The Emerging Global Mandate is being held in the Burton Auditorium, York University. Speakers include E. Goussarov, D. Cortwright, H. Scoville,
L. Kristiansen, J. Verigin, M. Laurence, T. Gervasi, A. Eggleton, L. Pauling,
E. Regehr, Rev. L. Wilson, H. Epp. Registration: $25, or $5 per session. Infor-mation: (416) 367-0432 or Operation Dismantle, Box 3887, Station C, Ottawa KlY 4M5.
82.73. American Physical Society Endorses Nas Resolution
In June, 1982, the Executive Committee of the American Physical Society unanimously endorsed the resolution on Nuclear War and Arms Control of the National Academy of Sciences (see item 82.62. in this Bulletin). It was noted that a few of the items on the NAS statement have already been implemented. For several years, the APS has played a role in educating its members and the public on the technical issues involved in the nuclear arms limitation area, via symposia and short courses at its general meeting.
What is your professional society doing?
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